||This thesis investigates the effects of varying the crystallographic orientations of epitaxial ZnO thin films to produce functional ZnO P-N diodes. First, with the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a p-type m-oriented ZnO epitaxial layer is deposited onto an also m-oriented Al2O3 substrate. Then an n-type ZnO layer, mostly textured along the c-axis, is grown atop to form a P-N diode by RF sputtering method.|
The Hall Effect of the m-ZnO thin film is measured separately at various temperatures and magnetic fields in Quantum Design’s Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS) to determine the nature of the charge carriers. The m-oriented ZnO films are found to be p-type semiconductors, with carrier concentration approximately ~ 1021 1/cm3, which falls in the category of highly-doped degenerate semiconductor. In order to further prove that these films are indeed p-type, naturally n-type c-textured ZnO films are put on the m-films at room temperature by magnetron sputtering to see if the current-voltage (I-V) curves do follow the P-N junction characteristics. In optimizing the c-ZnO film quality and reducing the effects of the junction defects, the gas-mixture ratio between argon and oxygen was varied to compare for the changes in the performance of the resulted materials and devices.
X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the crystallographic orientations and the general qualities of the samples by 2θ-ω scan, rocking scan, φ-scan and pole figure measurement. Understanding of the P-N diode is acquired through the analysis of the leakage current and the quantum tunneling phenomena as manifested in the I-V characteristics.