||High efficient optical spot size converter (SSC) is one of the most important building blocks for dense optical interconnection network and high-speed optical fiber communications due to efficient optical power transfer between different optical modules. Using tapered optical direction coupler (TODC) as SSC can reduce the dimension with high efficiency because of resonant condition and tapered structure. However, the strong dependence of operation on wavelength leads to narrow band operation, reducing the usage of wavelength division multiplexer (WDM) technique for upgrading optical data capacity through optical spectrum. |
In this work, based on multi- resonant points of TODC, a broadband SSC integrated with optical electroabsorption modulator (EAM) is proposed, designed, and fabricated. By tapering quantum well of the top active waveguide (AW), the integration with bottom passive waveguide (PW) can form a TODC. With the tapered structure, the gradually varied effective index forms a resonant point along wave propagation, inducing strong coupling, collecting optical power after resonant point, and thus leading to high efficient coupling. With multi-section of resonant conditions and also tapered structure, broadband operation can be realized. Through 3 section of tapered AW of TODC, the calculated coupling efficiency from bottom PW with larger than 70% is found for the regime of 1530nm~1550nm wavelength. The EAM-integrated SSC is also fabricated. With counter direction of optical coupling, the measured photocurrent in EAM shows a broadband of flap coupling from 1570nm~1585nm is observed, suggesting the multi-section TODC can bring out broadband operation.