||1. Colorimetric Assay for Cyanide and Cyanogenic Glycoside Using Polysorbate 40-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles.|
This study described a simple and homogeneous method for the selective and sensitive detection of cyanide and endogenous biological cyanide using polysorbate 40-stabilized gold nanoparticles (PS 40-AuNPs). Neutral PS 40 molecules enable citrate-capped AuNPs to stabilize in a high-salinity solution. The addition of cyanide to a solution of PS 40-AuNPs resulted in the formation of AuCN(s) on the NP surface and Au(CN)2– in an aqueous solution. The removal of PS 40 molecules from the NP surface rendered the AuNPs unstable in a high-salinity solution, leading to NP aggregation. The formation of AuCN(s) and Au(CN)2– was demonstrated by means of surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, respectively. PS 40-AuNPs were capable of selectively detecting cyanide at concentrations as low as 500 nM. Additionally, the minimum detectable concentration of linamarin (cyanogenic glycoside) was measured to be 1 uM using PS 40-AuNPs. This probe was successfully applied to the determination of cyanide in tap water, the monitor of cyanide removal during food processing, and the quantification of linamarin in cassava root.
2. Colorimetric detoxification and monitored cyanogenic glycoside in plants/fruit using polysorbate 40-stabilized gold nanoparticles.
Developing rapid, highly sensitive, and selective detection/inhibition of cyanide/cyanogenic glycoside from plants and foods is extremely essential for human life safety. Here we report a strategy for the colormetric visualization of cyanogenic glycoside using polysorbate 40 stabilized gold nanoparticle (PS 40-AuNPs). Two cyanogenic glycosides (amygdalin and linamarin) were chosen to determine the efficiency of acid hydrolysis. According to US Department and Health and Human Services standard cyanide antidote kit, sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin (vitamin B12a) seems to be an appropriate antidote for treatment cyanide poisoning victims. The addition of thiosulfate/vitamin B12a to a solution of cyanide/cyanogenic glycosides resulted in the formation of thiocyanate/vitamin B12 in an aqueous solution, which couldn’t etch PS 40-AuNPs and inhibit the aggregation of PS 40-AuNPs in a high-salt solution. The inhibition/detoxification efficiency (IC50) of thiosulfate and vitamin B12a were studied for treatment of cyanide and hydrolyzed cyanogenic glycoside. This probe was also used to monitor the removal of cyanide, estimated the concentration of cyanide and detoxification of cyanide by thiosulfate in plants/fruit sample.