||This thesis contains two parts of materials characterization. Part I is a poly(butylene succinate) copolymer with minor amount of 2-methyl-propylene succinate. In the second part, six kinds of implant crowns made from five dental casting alloys and one Zircoina ceramic are studied.|
Copolyester was synthesized and characterized as having 89.0 mol% butylene succinate units and 11.0 mol% 2-methyl-propylene succinate units in a random sequence, revealed by NMR. Isothermal crystallization kinetics was studied in the temperature range (Tc) from 75 to 91 °C using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The melting behavior after isothermal crystallization was studied by using DSC by varying the Tc, the crystallization time and the scanning rate. DSC curves showed triple melting peaks. Multiple melting behaviors indicate that the upper melting peaks are associated with the primary and the recrystallized crystals, or the crystals with different lamellar thickness. As the Tc increases, the contribution of recrystallization slowly decreases and finally disappears. A Hoffman-Weeks linear plot gives an equilibrium melting temperature of 118.4 °C. The spherulitic growth rates of this copolyester were measured at Tc between 69 and 91 °C using an optical microscope equipped with a CCD camera. The kinetic analysis of the growth rates gave a regime II-III transition temperature at about 77.2 °C.
Rectangular specimens of 10 × 9 × 4 mm were made of five kinds of casting alloys, separately. They were treated in the same procedures as crowns did. Their surfaces after oxidation were analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rectangular specimens after applying porcelains were ~5.5 mm thick. The cross-section areas were studied by electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Standardized maxillary premolar crowns were fabricated with five different alloys and one Zircoina ceramic. The crown specimens were positioned in a custom testing apparatus and vertically loaded on the middle of the occlusal surface with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Mean values of load at fracture were calculated in each alloy and compared with a one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (α=0.05). The fracture surfaces were examined using SEM. The results of XPS, SEM and EPMA indicate that on the surface there was an oxidation layer (or interface between metal and ceramic) of indium (or/and tin, zinc, etc.). The concentration of oxide metal increased, whereas that of precious metal decreased, from bulk to interface. The fracture strength and the fracture path of the crowns were correlated with the metal-ceramic interface of the rectangular specimens that was characterized using XPS, SEM and EPMA.