||In 2014, the total amount of foreign domestic workers(foreign maid and foreign nurse) and foreign institutional care takers is more than 200,000, most of them come from Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam. They are servicing for the elderly and the physical-challenged. From Taiwan opened its door for migrant workers during the 1990s, the number of migrant workers has always been increasing. In domestic & institutional foreign workers, it has always been increasing more steadily than the workers who work in the construction project & manufacturing industry. The situation is very clear during the 1997 Asia Financial crisis and 2008 Financial Tsunami. It shows that people are more getting rely on these migrants and rely on specific countries.|
During these 20 years, the long-term care service and migrant worker policy have changed tremendously. The foreign domestic workers & institutional workers are here to take care the elderly and physical-challenged. These people are also the person which government`s long-term care service policy is going for. Before 2000 years, the migrant workers was not part of the long term care service policy in Taiwan, then it has become part of it since 2000 years. And government has been trying to build long term care service system and trying to stop people relying on the foreign care-takers. After a serious of long-term care service policy, people still keep relying on the migrant workers. Long-term care policy can not explain the difference between relying on different countries during the past 22 years.
According to the trend from the 1990s, we can find different period of the foreign domestic & institutional workers here. First, from 1990s-2000, Philippine & Indonesia period, the 2 countries counted for more than 90%. Second, 2000-2004, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam competing period. Third, 2004-today, rely heavily on Indonesia period. During these 3 different period of time, we can find different element involved in the labor market, including Southeast Asia countries and Taiwan both sides, also including political-economic reasons. We can find that the increasing number of migrant workers and more rely on Indonesian migrant workers. Though politics plays an important role for making contract worker policy, the effect of the political factors(ex. sanction) is short-term and limited actually.
The policy of the government, the economic development and foreign policy are not the only factors here, the person and family who need the foreign care-taking workers also play an important role here. The cultural impression and manpower agency are very important in the manpower market. By the way that cultural reasons and manpower agency affecting each other, the result is very clear today. The government`s policy can been found easily , but the culture and manpower agency is something can`t be found easily and with long-enduring effect. According to the research here, the policy of house-hold contract workers will affected by multi-factors, and the best explanation for these 22 years is market( culture & manpower agency).
All in all, Taiwan still rely on migrant workers to take care the elderly and physical-challenged, and we also rely on very few countries especially Indonesia.
Government`s policy for long-term care service policy should include the migrant workers, especially the culture aspect and manpower mechanism. Through the way considering different culture difference and matching the people who need long-term care-taking, we can keep balance between the country, the elderly & physical-challenged and the foreign migrant workers.