||The thesis aims to discuss the encounter between communism and liberalism in the twenty-first century. There are two cores in the operation of contemporary society: one is capitalism and the other is natural science. Natural science has been regarded as the epistemological system and the methodology, while capitalism has been thought as the modes of production. |
With the emergence of liberalism in the sixteenth century, the property rights were guaranteed in the liberalism, and it led to the birth of capitalism. However, the mode of production in capitalism oppressed the humans, and then it followed with the emergence and critique of post-communism. But the actual operation of communism also brought about the birth of despotism and tyranny. And the emphasis to which the thesis would be devoted is the response of the communism toward liberalism.
The thesis begins with the historical materialism discussed in Isaiah Berlin’s Karl Marx: His Life and Environment, and discusses how he collected and organized the relevant literature and materials. Through the threads of psychoanalysis, Young Hegelians, Paris Socialism, and historical materialism, the thesis discusses his later problematics and impacts. Then from Berlin’s Liberty: Incorporating Four Essays on Liberty, the thesis explores the relevant problems of historical determinism. Meanwhile, the emancipation of the humans and how they obtain the liberty are further discussed. Last, John Gray’s Two Faces of Liberalism is further examined.