Emerging diseases such as middle east respiratory syndrome, severe acute respiratory syndrome or other infections induced by Ebola virus, Bacillus anthracis, and Legionnaire’s disease which are all related to lung inflammation and lung edema with high mortality. The mechanisms involved in these emerging diseases could be related to the microbes infection and the inflammation reactions involved in the lung. The inflammation of the lung could be induced by sequestered of the inflammatory cells in the lung, so that oxidative stress increased, pulmonary arterial pressure increased, and the permeability changes in pulmonary capillaries. Besides, blood cells sequestered in the lung-induced ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) of lung tissues are also related. Necrosis of intestines or inflammation of pancreas also could induce systemic inflammatory responses, so that hemodynamic changes in the lung, pulmonary capillary permeability changes and lung edema ensured.
In the pilot study we proved that ischemia/ reperfusion of the lung tissues induced lung water increase (p < 0.01), lavage protein in pulmonary capillary bronchial alveolar lavage (PCBAL) increase (p < 0.001) and the permeability coefficient of pulmonary capillary increase (p < 0.05). After administration of water soluble oxygen radical scavenger, dimethylthiourea, the lung injury parameters attenuated significantly (PCBAL, p < 0.01; LW/BW, p < 0.05). However, big molecules of oxygen radical scavengers such as superoxide dismutase and catalase did not prove with protective effects (p > 0.05). These could be related to the big molecules of superoxide dismutase and catalase which can’t penetrate into cells.
Further experiment, we demonstrated that ischemia/ reperfusion of pancreas induced inflammation of pancreas and the elevation of airways reactivity which could be related to the I/R of pancreas-induced increase of inflammation white cell, tumor necrotic factor, hydroxyl radicals, and nitrosative stress. After administration of curcumin (antioxidant), all these responses are attenuated. Since post I/R of pancreas induced increase of amylase, lipase, protease in the blood, it proved indirectly that pancreatic juice exudates into the blood (p < 0.01), so that intrapulmonary inflammation and lung edema.
In this study we set up the model by aerosolized of pancreatic juice and infused the aerosol directly into airway. We demonstrated that aerosolized of pancreatic juice into airway could induce obstructive and restrictive ventilatory insufficiency which are related to the juice-induced lung inflammation by which increase of blood concentration of white cells in pulmonary capillary. Decrease of RBC counts and increase of the concentrations of hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corporal volume, and the mean weight of hemoglobin. Besides, platelet concentration also decreased. These changes induced disseminated coagulation in the whole body. The increase of the concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase in the blood and in the lavage proved that juice-induced cells damage in the lung and whole body. The pulmonary function data demonstrated that maximum voluntary ventilation, maximum mid-expiratory rate, airway resistance, vital capacity, respiration work, peak expiratory flow rate, maximal mid-expiratory flow and forced expiratory flow 50% were all decreased. However, total lung capacity, residual volume and chord compliance increased. Those data showed that lung functions were all affected. After using curcumin, the data of protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, LDH in serum and the lung function parameters all showed protective effects by curcumin. Through this study we confirmed that curcumin has potent antioxidant capacity by which oxidative and nitrosative stresses are attenuated. In conclusion, curcumin exerted its protective effects on pulmonary functions. In addition, through this study we also established the experimental model by aerosolized of pancreatic juice to the lungs to induce lung injury. This provides a good model on inflammation of the pancreas and lung diseases.