||As time goes by rapid development of 3D graphics technique and 3C portable product output, 3D graphics have been widely applied to handheld devices, such as notebooks, PDAs, and smart cellular phones. Generally, to process 3D graphics applications in mobile devices, processor needs strong capability of handling large computational-intensive workloads. Complex computation consumes a great quantity of electric power. But the lifetime of handheld device battery is limited. Therefore, the cost, to satisfy this demand, will be shortening the supply time of device battery. Moreover, Moore’ law said that the number of transistors in a chip is double in every eighteen months. But these days the advance in manufacturing batteries still cannot get up with the advance in developing processors. In addition, the improvement of chip size has led to more small, supply voltage of kernel processor in portable device. Considering system efficiency and battery lifetime simultaneously increase the difficulty of designing power management scheme. So, how to manage power effectively has become one of the important key for designing handheld products.|
For 3D graphics system, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is one of good solutions to implement power management policy. DVFS needs an efficient online prediction method to predict the workload of frames and then appropriately adjust voltage and frequency for saving energy consumption. Consequently, a lot of related papers have proposed different prediction policy to predict the executing workload of 3D graphics system. For instance, the existing prediction policies include signature-based, history-based and proportion-integral-derivative (PID) methods, but most of designers put power management in software, i.e. processors. This solution not only slows power management to get the information about executing time of graphic processing unit (GPU), but also increases the operating overhead of CPU in handheld system.
In this paper, we propose a power management workload prediction scheme with a framework of using proportion-integral (PI) controller to be a master controller and fuzzy controller to be a slave controller, and then implement it into hardware circuit. Taking advantage of fuzzy conception in fuzzy controller is to adjust the proportional parameter in PI controller, the shortage of traditional PI controller that demands on complicated try-and-error method to look for a good proportional and integral parameters can be avoided so that the adaption and forecasting accuracy can be improved. Besides, Uniform Window-size Predictor 1 (UW1) is also implemented as an assistant manner. Using UW1 predictor appropriately can improve the prediction trend to catch up with the trend of real workload. Experimental results show that our predictor improves prediction accuracy about 3.8% on average and saves about 0.02% more energy compared with PI predictor. Circuit area and power consumption only increases 6.8% percent and 1.4% compared with PI predictor. Besides, we also apply our predictor to the 3D first person game, Quake II, in the market. The result shows that our predictor is indeed an effective prediction policy. The adaption can put up with the intense workload variation of real game and adjust voltage and frequency precisely to decrease power consumption and meet the purpose of energy saving.