||We have investigated the polarization effect of optical process in the vertically coupled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) triple layers by varying the thickness of GaAs spacer layer. The TE/TM ratio for the ground state emission decreases from near 4 to 1.5 as the spacer thickness (d) decreases from 40 nm to 5 nm. And, the TE polarization (in-plane polarization) is anisotropic with a stronger component along [01-1] direction. P-type modulation doping further decreases the TE/TM ratio to r = 1.2 for the strong vertical coupling QDs structure of 5-nm spacer. Then, using a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy directly reveals the InGaAs QDs of 5-nm spacer well aligned along the growth direction.|
From the electroluminescence (EL) and differential absorption (Δα) experiments, the higher optical gain and absorption change for the excited state suggest that the e2-hh transition has higher oscillator strength for the vertically coupled QDs. We also investigate for the triple-layer InGaAs vertically coupled quantum dots (VCQDs) by adding modulation doping (MD) in the 5-nm GaAs spacer layers. In addition to the QDs fundamental and excited transitions, a coupled-state transition is observed for the VCQDs. For the VCQDs of p-type MD, the optical transitions at ground state and coupled state are enhanced by the improvement of hole capture for the valence subbands. For the VCQDs of n-type MD, the main absorption change occurs at the coupled state, consistent with the dominant emission peak observed in EL spectra.
For GaAs-based solar cells application, in order to enhance absorption at infrared range for GaAs-based solar cells, multi-stack InGaAs VCQDs of 5-nm GaAs spacers are grown in the active region. Due to the strong vertical coupling between QDs would promote quantum efficiency. We have investigated the photovoltaic response for the solar cells by increasing the layer numbers of VCQDs. The device of nine-layer InGaAs VCQDs shows an enhanced short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 10.5 mA/cm2. The value is increased by 42% compared to GaAs reference device. However, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is reduced from 0.88 V to 0.54 V. Then, we change the GaAs spacer thickness of coupled In0.75Ga0.25As QDs, and investigated the effects on photovoltaic response. For the sample of d =10 nm shows the best performance of current density (Jsc~24 mA/cm2) and efficiency (h~10.6%). The Jsc and h are increases by 55% and 112% more than the device without QDs, respectively.