||This study investigates characteristics of odorous materials and their odor intensities emitted from various commercial and industrial sources in the Kaohsiung City. An overview of odor complaints from the city people is presented and discussed.|
Results indicate that, due to the increasing people concerns about the odor emission problems, more frequent checks done by the City EPA officers, governmental assistances to the pollution makers on the pollution control technologies, and the enforcement of more stringent environmental protection regulations, odor-complaint cases in this city are decreasing in recent years. However, people are giving more attention to odors from food-cooking emissions and the associated complaint cases are increasing. Emissions from restaurants and plants become the two major odor sources in this city.
For the plant emissions, odorous chemicals emitted from the Kaohsiung Refinery, located in northern Zouying District, were detected to be benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene. The Chianjhen storage and pumping station, located by the Kaohsiung Harbor, emits some 40 different chemicals. The majors among them are methanol, ammonia, ethylene, n-pentane, chlorodifluoromethane, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), propylene, cyclohexane, styrene, acetone, 1,2-dichloroethane, propylene oxide and vinyl chloride. Prompt leaks from the storage tanks and during the loading and unloading operations account for the emissions. Plants located in the Chianjhen Export Processing Zone emit chemicals, mainly methyl methacrylate, toluene, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA), ammonia, ethyl acetate and ethanol, which cause only a few complaint cases. The emitted chemicals are among the ones used by the plants as feed stokes or solvents.
Restaurant located in Chianjhen and Hsiogang Districts emit large amount of food-cooking odorants, however, the percentage of odorous complaining for the emissions is relatively high in the Zouying District as compared to the other administrative districts investigated in this study. Major components of the food-cooking emissions include hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), ammonia, and methylamine. Relative percentages among these chemicals depend on the cooking materials and styles.
Results also indicate that industries or businesses, such as petrochemical, surface coating, paint manufacturing, fuel station, storage vessels, semiconductor manufacturing, adhesive tape manufacturing and cloth dry-cleaning, are major odor and chemical emission sources which need to be continuously implemented for getting more emission reductions in the near future.