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博碩士論文 etd-0715110-153809 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0715110-153809
論文名稱
Title
以人工濕地處理廢水中內分泌干擾物質之研究
Treatment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) by Constructed Wetlands
系所名稱
Department
畢業學年期
Year, semester
語文別
Language
學位類別
Degree
頁數
Number of pages
150
研究生
Author
指導教授
Advisor
召集委員
Convenor
口試委員
Advisory Committee
口試日期
Date of Exam
2010-07-08
繳交日期
Date of Submission
2010-07-15
關鍵字
Keywords
風險評估、環境荷爾蒙、烷基苯酚化合物、內分泌干擾物質、人工濕地
Ecological Risk Assessment, Constructed Wetland, Environment Hormone, Alkylphenolic Compounds, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
統計
Statistics
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中文摘要
本研究為瞭解廢水人工濕地處理系統中內分泌干擾物質(又稱為環境荷爾蒙)之流佈及削減能力,並選定台北縣大漢溪沿岸人工濕地群及屏東縣大鵬灣國家風景區環灣人工濕地群,進行進流的廢水中及人工濕地內壬基苯酚雙乙氧基醇、壬基苯酚單乙氧基醇、壬基苯酚及辛基苯酚之調查,就該類污染物質於不同空間及時間之排放特徵,來探討運用人工濕地系統之去除效能。另外,本研究還利用風險商數來計算濕地系統測站水體內分泌干擾物質可能造成環境危害影響之風險。
大鵬灣國家風景區人工濕地群係屬於鹹水型人工濕地處理海水養殖廢水,有關場址的選擇分別為大潭人工濕地、鵬村人工濕地及林邊右岸人工濕地,共設置32個樣站進行現況調查。所採樣品先以固相萃取法進行前處理,並利用高效能液相層析儀配合螢光偵測器進行定量與定性分析。分析結果顯示,三座人工濕地中之壬基苯酚雙乙氧基醇、壬基苯酚單乙氧基醇、壬基苯酚及辛基苯酚之濃度分別介於<3.3 ~968.7、<3.3~ 226.5、<1.3~238.4及<1.0~1,458.7 ng/L,檢出率分別為29.9、47.3、20.5及57.7%;對於各季節的濃度變化,依照排列順序依次為夏季>春季>冬季>&#31187;季,對於不同型態人工濕地削減內分泌干擾物質之潛能,排列順序為大潭人工濕地>鵬村人工濕地>林邊右岸人工濕地。
大漢溪沿岸人工濕地群係屬於淡水型人工濕地處理生活污水,有關場址選擇分別為打鳥埤人工濕地、新海一期人工濕地和新海二期人工濕地,共設置18個樣站進行現況調查。分析結果顯示,壬基苯酚雙乙氧基醇、壬基苯酚單乙氧基醇、壬基苯酚及辛基苯酚之濃度分別介於<3.3~11,191.5、<3.3~ 6,069.0、<1.3~671.0及<1.0~5,581.9 ng/L,檢出率分別為91.9、84.8、17.1及73.7%;對這四種化合物之帄均去除率分別為58.2、69.8、42.9和55.1%,對於不同型式人工濕地削減內分泌干擾物質之潛能,排列順序依次為新海二期人工濕地>打鳥埤人工濕地>新海一期人工濕地。
在人工濕地風險危害評估方面,大漢溪沿岸人工濕地群的風險商數值比大鵬灣人工濕地群高,最高可至30倍,其中又以打鳥埤人工溼地的商數值最高,表示對水中生物會造成潛在的風險。整體而言,將各月份濃度加以帄均,並計算出其風險,觀察進流水與放流水的商數值變化,普遍有降低的趨勢,表示經過人工濕地處理後,確實可以有效降低烷基苯酚化合物對水生生物的風險性。
Abstract
Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs), a class of nonionic surfactants, have been widely used for industrial, agricultural and household applications. The biodegradation metabolites of APEOs, such as nonylphenol and octylphenol, are more persistent and known to disrupt endocrine function in wildlife and human. These compounds are also recognized as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution and removal efficiencies of EDCs, including nonylphenol diethoxylates (NP2EO), nonylphenol monoethoxylates (NP1EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), of wastewater treated by the constructed wetland systems along the Dahan River and around the Dapeng Bay, respectively. In addition, the method of risk quotient was used to evaluate the potential ecological risk of APEOs to aquatic organisms in current study.
The water samples collected from 32 sampling sites in the Dapeng Bay National Scenic Area including Datan, Pengcun and Linbain right bank constructed wetlands. The samples were then concentrated by solid phase extraction, and analyzed for target compounds by HPLC/fluorescence. According to the results, nonylphenol diethoxylates, nonylphenol monoethoxylates, nonylphenol and octylphenol were found approximately equal to 29.9, 47.3, 20.5 and 57.7 %, respectively of the samples from three constructed wetlands with concentrations ranged from <3.3 to 968.7, <3.3 to 226.5, <1.3 to 238.4 and <1.0 to 1458.7 ng/L, respectively. Temporal variation of APEOs showed a decreasing in the order of summer>spring>winter>autumn. The removal efficiencies of APEOs in these constructed wetlands showed a decreasing order of Datan wetland>Pengcun wetland>Linbain right bank wetland.
In addition, the samples collected from 18 sampling sites from the constructed wetlands along the riparian of Dahan River including Daniaopi, Hsin-Hai Bridge Phases I and II constructed wetlands. According to the results, nonylphenol diethoxylates, nonylphenol monoethoxylates, nonylphenol and octylphenol were found approximately equal to 91.9、84.8、17.1 and 73.7 %, respectively of samples collected from three constructed wetlands with concentrations ranged from <3.3 to 11191.5, <3.3 to 6069.0, <1.3 to 671.0 and <1.0 to 5581.9 ng/L, respectively. The removal potential of APEOs in these constructed wetlands showed a decreasing order of Hsin-Hai Bridge Phases II>Daniaopi>Hsin-Hai Bridge Phases I constructed wetland.
Regarding the ecological assessment in this research, the calculated risk quotients were up to 30 times higher in the constructed wetland systems of Dahan River than those in the Dapeng Bay National Scenic Area, indicating that the existing concentrations of these EDCs in wetland systems might cause potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the decreasing risk quotient from influent to effluent indicating the capabilities of treating alkylphenolic compounds in these constructed wetlands.
目次 Table of Contents
摘要 I
謝誌 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第1章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目標 3
第2章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 濕地背景資料 4
2.1.1 濕地的定義 4
2.1.2濕地的分類 4
2.1.3人工濕地介紹 6
2.1.4人工濕地對於不同性質廢污水的應用 8
2.2內分泌干擾化學物質背景資料 10
2.2.1何謂內分泌干擾物質 10
2.2.2烷基苯酚化合物的來源與用途 12
2.2.3烷基苯酚化合物於水環境中的分佈 15
2.2.4烷基苯酚化合物於水環境中的宿命 25
2.2.5人工濕地相關應用研究 31
2.3研究區域背景資料 33
2.3.1大鵬灣現況與發展背景 33
2.3.2大潭人工濕地 36
2.3.3鵬村人工濕地 36
2.3.4林邊右岸人工濕地 37
2.3.5大漢溪現況與發展背景 38
2.3.6打鳥埤人工濕地 42
2.3.7新海一期人工濕地 42
2.3.8新海二期人工濕地 43
第3章 實驗材料與方法 44
3.1實驗藥品與儀器設備 44
3.1.1實驗藥品 44
3.1.2實驗材料 45
3.1.3實驗設備 45
3.2樣品收集與來源 46
3.2.1採樣點選擇 46
3.2.2採樣時間規劃 50
3.3樣品萃取與分析 51
3.3.1萃取步驟 51
3.3.2儀器設定參數 51
3.3.3實驗品保品管作業 53
第4章 結果與討論 55
4.1 大潭人工濕地 55
4.1.1 大潭濕地基本水體資料 55
4.1.2 烷基苯酚化合物於大潭濕地之濃度分佈 59
4.2 鵬村人工濕地 65
4.2.1 鵬村濕地基本水體資料 65
4.2.2 烷基苯酚化合物於鵬村人工濕地之濃度分佈 69
4.3 林邊右岸人工濕地 74
4.3.1 林邊右岸濕地基本水體資料 75
4.3.2 烷基苯酚化合物於林邊右岸濕地之濃度分佈 80
4.4 打鳥埤人工濕地 90
4.4.1 打鳥埤濕地基本水體資料 90
4.4.2 烷基苯酚化合物於打鳥埤濕地之濃度分佈 94
4.5 新海一期人工濕地 99
4.5.1 新海一期濕地基本水體資料 99
4.5.2 烷基苯酚化合物於新海一期濕地之濃度分佈 103
4.6 新海二期人工濕地 108
4.6.1 新海二期濕地基本水體資料 108
4.6.2 烷基苯酚化合物於新海二期濕地之濃度分佈 112
4.7風險評估 117
第5章 結論與建議 124
第6章 參考文獻 126
附錄 136
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