||The French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution brought impact in both politics and economics that cause the rise of middle classes and changing environment in the music society. Under the influence of the new environment, the business of music publishers grow rapidly, and publishing music scores became a part of composers’ major income. The chamber music and works for solo instruments are the most popular genres that middle classes and bourgeois are more interested during the classical period. The study focuses on the relationships between music publishers, composers, and public amateur. The thesis consists of three chapters, in addition to the introduction and conclusion. Chapter one contains the overview of the background of the society and musical environments in the late eighteenth century in Germany and Austria. Chapter two describes the music publishers in Germany and Austria, with emphasis on two leading publishers, Artaria and Breitkopf & Härtel. The third chapter focuses the discussion of how publishing process effects the composers’ writing.|
By the end of the eighteenth century, due to the changing of the social and musical environments, music publishers were developed rapidly. Bourgeois are the major consumers, and the publication of scores depended on the needs of the amateur, that publishers gained their taste through the newspaper advertisement. The chamber music and works for solo instruments are the most selling items among the popular genres. Because there are different economic background from Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, their publishing process are not the same. After discharging from the Esterházy, Haydn started publishing his works. He, however, still remained part of payments from the Esterházy, and didn’t depend on publishers entirely. Haydn, sometimes tried to sell the same work several times. Mozart and Beethoven didn’t get paid from the court, they had to promote their works to publisher. Beethoven’s publishing process is different from Haydn, and Mozart, he had forced the publisher stop to publish the pirate edition, and got more money by quoting at the publishers. Furthermore, between the choices of art and commercialism, they have a significant influence on the music of the Romantic era.