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URN etd-0704117-181709
Author Chia-Hsuan Wei
Author's Email Address No Public.
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Department Biological Sciences
Year 2016
Semester 2
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document
Language English
Title Evolution of co-mimicry assemblage: A case study based on the Euploea mulciber mimicry complex
Date of Defense 2017-06-22
Page Count 164
Keyword
  • molecular dating
  • Batesian mimicry
  • Müllerian mimicry
  • chemical defense
  • character evolution
  • correlated evolution
  • Abstract Evolution of phenotypic novelty is one of the core questions in mimicry biology. Diversity of mimicry complex results from complex ecological interactions between and/or within species, such as predator/prey arm race or mating preference. Theoretically, a model species leading a mimicry complex has conspicuous warning coloration alone with unprofitable secondary defense to “educate” predator to produce aversive experience to avoid attack the prey displaying similar visual signal, hence it should evolve earlier than profitable or moderately unprofitable mimics evolutionarily. Thus, variety of mimetic pattern is also considered as a significant factor to promote speciation. This idea has been believed until recent molecular phylogenetic studies argued that evolutionary history of mimetic pattern could be incongruent with speciation. Moreover, mimetic phenotype of mimic can possibly reverse back to ancestral state or become imperfect evolutionarily when distributes allopatrically with its model. Therefore, if speciation would be not always altered with mimetic phenotype, or vise versa, the hypothesis of “model always evolves ealier than mimics” may be not tenable extensively. In the present study, I studied a mimicry complex dominated by Euploea mulciber which is distributed from northeast India, Indochina, to Sunda islands. So far, at least 10 species from 3 lepidopteran families are known involved in the mimicry complex, and show extraordinary sexually dimorphic or polymorphic wing pattern by various biogeographic regions. To test the hypothsis, the present study focused on the temporal correlation in appearance of mimetic characters between the model genus, Euploea (Danainae), and three mimic genera, Elymnias (Satyrinae), Papilio (Chilasa) (Papilioninae), and Cyclosia (Chalcosiinae). In Chapter 1, investigation of the phenotypic diversity and distribution of the mimicry complex suggests several surprisingly results. Not only the mimics but the model exhibit considerable variety of wing pattern. Interestingly, the co-mimics exhibiting the “classic Eu. mulciber” phenotype is constrained from India subcontinent to Sundaland. Transitions of mimetic pattern in the Philippines and lesser Sundaland are observed, and the boudanry between the classic and transited patterns is essentially in accordance with the Wallace’s line. In Chapter 2, reconstruction of the molecular phylogeny of Cyclosia and inference of evolution of sexual dimorphism and mimetic wing pattern reveals the underestimated species diversity, and repeatedly evolved sexual dimorphic and mimetic wing pattern. In Chapter 3, reconstruction of the molecular phylogeny of Papilio (Chilasa) and inference of evolution of mimicry reveal existence of cryptic species. Divergence between continental and insular population occurs repeatedly in most species. The evolutionary trend of the co-mimicking taxa is from perfection to imperfection. The ecological factors what would influence the trend (e.g. predation pressure, body size, chemical defense or forest structure) are not clear yet, and it requires more investigation to address the question in future. In Chapter 4, I adopted the Bayesian analysis to infer the divergence time of the model and co-mimics species by using respective phylogeny of the above genera. The results show that all co-mimicking species evolved later than the model except P. (C.) paradoxa, but the infra-specific divergence of all the species were later than the model, suggesting that the Eu. mulciber phenotype of the mimics may acquire recently. In summary, the present study is the first to test the classical prediction of relative divergence times between co-mimicking lineages by using multiple independent phylogenies. The results suggest that the times of speciation and origin of mimetic phenotype are not necessarily correlated with each other, though model plays a key role in driving evolution of wing pattern of its followers.
    Advisory Committee
  • Yu-Feng Hsu - chair
  • Chung-Ping Lin - co-chair
  • Si-Min Lin - co-chair
  • Man-Miao Yang - co-chair
  • Shen-Horn Yen - advisor
  • Files
  • etd-0704117-181709.pdf
  • Indicate in-campus at 5 year and off-campus access at 5 year.
    Date of Submission 2017-08-18

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