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URN etd-0701115-182402
Author Yun-jie Huang
Author's Email Address D975040004@student.nsysu.edu.tw
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Department Marine Environment and Engineering
Year 2014
Semester 2
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document
Language English
Title Role of the Sea-Surface Microlayer (SML) in the Fate and Transportation of Organic Pollutants
Date of Defense 2015-07-27
Page Count 150
Keyword
  • Kaohsiung
  • polychlorinated biphenyls
  • polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • surfactant
  • sea-surface microlayer
  • enrichment
  • Abstract The sea-surface microlayer (SML) is markedly different in characteristics when compared with the sub-surface water (SSW) and plays an important role of the fate and transport of organic pollutants. However there have few studies reporting the enrichment behavior and relationship with water parameter of contaminants in the SML. In chapter 2, samples of SML and SSW were collected from two areas-Kaohsiung City and the southwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia to study the influence of SML on enrichment and distribution and to compare with the SSW. Anionic surfactants (MBAS) predominated in this study and were significantly higher in Kaohsiung than in Malaysia. Industrial areas in Kaohsiung were enriched with high loads of anthropogenic sources, accounted for higher surfactant amounts than in Malaysia, where pollutants were associated with agricultural activities. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC), MBAS, and cationic surfactant (DBAS) concentrations in the SML correlated to the SSW, reflecting water exchanges in Kaohsiung. The relationships between surfactants and the physiochemical parameters indicated that DOC and saltwater dilution might affect the distributions of surfactants in Kaohsiung. In Malaysia, DOC might be the important factor controlling DBAS. In chapter 3, selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of the SML and SSW were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution in Kaohsiung Harbor and adjacent area. PAH and PCB concentrations in the SML were higher than those in the SSW. Overall, the particulate pollutants were all higher than those of dissolved pollutants. Correlation analysis showed significant relationships between DOC and the concentrations of total PAH, particulate PAH, and dissolved PCB. The mean enrichment factors (EFs) of PAHs and PCBs were higher than 1, indicating the enrichment in the SML. Moreover, isomer ratio and principal cluster analysis (PCA) showed the dominance of mixing petroleum and combustion source, which similar to the previous results in this area. Total particulate PAHs at most sites are below the toxicity thresholds, with a few individual PAHs between the ERL (effect range-low) and ERM (effect range-median) values. Most total particulate PCB concentrations were between ERL and ERM values indicating a potential biological impact. Finally in chapter 4, batch experiments were conducted to study the distribution behaviors between the artificial SML and PAH, including naphthalene (Nap), anthracene (Ant), phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and fluoranthene (Flt). The results showed that the higher hydrophobic the PAH are, the quicker the equilibriums achieve. KD (distribution coefficient) was determined for five PAH compounds of the field sample and showed the opposite trend of decreasing KD with increasing polarity.
    Advisory Committee
  • Jen-Fon Jen - chair
  • Chin-Hsing Lai - co-chair
  • Huey-Ing Chen - co-chair
  • Rui-Ren Chen - co-chair
  • Chon-Lin Lee - advisor
  • Files
  • etd-0701115-182402.pdf
  • Indicate in-campus at 3 year and off-campus access at 5 year.
    Date of Submission 2015-08-03

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