||Foreign policy is extremely important for small countries, not only because foreign policy is a weapon to enhance national interests, but its success or failure also has a decisive influence on national security. In particular, Austria, which is sandwiched between the two camps during the Cold War, needs more diplomatic means to expand international space in a severely polarized international system. The Yalta Conference after the Second World War resolved that Austria will be divided into four occupation zones, and the national sovereignty will be subject to the powers. The Allied occupation of Austria lasted from 1945 to 1955. The Austrian State Treaty was signed in May 15, 1955, representatives of the governments of the Soviet Union, Great Britain, the United States, and France signed the treaty which granted Austria independence and arranged for the withdrawal of all occupation forces. These governments signed the agreement with the understanding that the newly independent state of Austria would declare its neutrality, creating a buffer zone between the East and the West. Due to the geopolitical frontline and the constitutional restrictions on the military, the national security is facing challenges after the announcement of neutrality. The Austrian country has developed a unique positive neutrality and maintained national security with a proactive foreign policy. During the Cold War, Austria has always used positive and flexible diplomatic means to keep national interests, actively participate in international affairs, demonstrate the role and function of a neutral country, provide its own mediation function in international disputes, thereby enabling the international community to pay attention to its neutrality and gain recognition. This maintains its neutral status and guarantee for the assurance of national security. |
In view of Taiwan, which has been repeatedly suppressed by the mainland China in diplomacy, it analyzes the possible options for Taiwan's foreign policy in Chapter 4. Since the division of the two sides of the strait in 1949, Taiwan is subject to the influence of the international power structure during the Cold War, which the United States as the main hegemony, its attitude directly affect the development of cross-strait relations. After withdrawing from the United Nations, the number of diplomatic relations has been drastically reduced, and the impact on Taiwan’s diplomatic situation has continued to this day. On January 1, 1979, the United States changed its diplomatic recognition of China from Taipei to Beijing, which has a considerable impact on Taiwan’s position in international and in cross-strait relations. As can be seen from the Austrian example, although Taiwan and Austria are both small countries and geopolitically sandwiched between big countries, but neutrality is not applicable to Taiwan. However, the active role of Austria in the international community can be used as a model for Taiwan.