The purpose of this study was to explore the changes in optimistic beliefs and Well-being after the implementation of the positive teaching program based on positive psychology and happiness theory. This quasi-experimental study conducted a nonequivalent group design with pretest and posttest and convenient sampling selection. A total of 81 6th grade students were conveniently selected from the investigator’s school in Kaohsiung city. A 27-child class was randomly assigned as the experimental group (EG) to attend an 8-week Positive-Oriented Teaching Program, and the other two 27-child classes were randomly assigned as the control groups (CG) to attend typical counseling curricula during the same time at their classrooms. All participants complete two well-structure instruments of "School Students' Optimistic Beliefs Scale" and "Child Well-being Scale" at the beginning and at the end of this study. In addition, 2 boys and 2 girls with the highest mean scores or with the lowest means in their pretest, and the other 4 students with the significant improvement during the intervention were conducted family power map drawing tests and individual interviews to further recognize their changes and possible factors regarding to students’ optimistic beliefs and well-being during the intervention. One-way analysis of variance, independent t-test and covariant analysis of variances were conducted to compare the similarities and differences between the two groups. Additionally, a Content Themes Analysis was used to analyze these target students’ individual interviews and drawing projection tests.
The essential findings were as the following:
1.The EG students’ mean scores on the “Optimistic belief” made a significantly improvement than the CG counterparts during the Positive-Oriented Teaching Program.
2.The EG students’ mean scores on the “Well-being” made a significantly improvement than the CG counterparts during the Positive-Oriented Teaching Program.
3. Great family atmosphere, optimism and high academic achievement were the most essential factors that related to target students’ high scores on the Optimistic belief and Well- being.
4. Target students with great family atmosphere, characteristics of optimism and high engagement in the Positive-Oriented Teaching Program was found to made
significant enhancement on the means of Optimistic belief and Well- being than the others.
This study provided a valuable insight to support the effects of Positive-Oriented Teaching Program and presented some educational implications for future studies and school counselors.
keywords: positive-oriented teaching, elementary school students,optimistic beliefs, well-being