||This study aimed to validate a learning progression (LP) for the scientific imagination (Wang, Ho, & Cheng, revised) based on a measurement approach using the BEAR Assessment System (BAS; Wilson, 2005, 2009) in an attempt to better understand the core ideas and the developmental path of the scientific imagination process as well as align curriculum, instruction, and assessment through LP. Participants in this study were selected from Taiwan, and classified into two categories. The first category included 767 3th to 6thgrade elementary school students, were administered the Scientific Imagination Test-Verbal (SIT-Verbal; Wang et al., revised). Besides, two award-winning teachers were interviewed in order to achieve more information for the LP. The second category included one award-winning experimental teacher who implemented a set of curriculum infusing scientific imagination and 41 6th grade elementary school students (experimental group: 22 students; control group: 19 students). For instruments, The SIT-Verbal, Imagery Questionnaire, the outline of interview, checklist of teaching (Cheng & Chuang, 2011), and curriculum of “man lien chi Miao” (Theng, 2014) were used in this study. Among these, the SIT-Verbal covered four key components of scientific imagination process: brainstorming, association, transformation/elaboration, and conceptualization/organization/formation; the Imagery Questionnaire covered one imagery ability which could generate imagery, objects, and pictures in mind. For analysis, firstly, the multiple validities (Wolfe & Smith, 2007) of the SIT-Verbal were assessed using the Rasch partial credit model (PCM; Master, 1982). Secondly, nonequivalent pretest-posttest design was used to explore teaching effect of scientific imagination between experimental group and ccompared group in pre- and post-test using one-way repeated measured ANOVA.|
The findings showed that (1) the BEAR assessment system and Rasch measurement approaches provided a feasible framework for developing validated tools to assess the LP of scientific imagination; (2) the empirical data supported students’ scientific imagination progressed “from brainstorming, association, transformation/elaboration, to conceptualization/organization/formation; (3) the developmental effect of scientific imagination was not achieved in experimental stage, however the teaching practice integrated assessment feedback facilitated students’ motivation and performance of scientific invention.
Based on the findings, the researcher suggested that develop a set of items for assessing LPs of scientific imagination and a series of materials for teaching practices integrated assessment feedback. Besides, to control interfered factors in experimental teaching, to explore different factors influenced imagination, such as personality and surroundings etc., and to develop other LPs in other domain using BAS could be considered in further studies. Finally, exploration and validation of LPs need to iterateconsistently based on multiple empirical evidence. The contribution of the study not only enhance teachers’ professions, but also provide more abundant information to verify the LP for scientific imagination. Implications for the assessments with the LPs, revisions for both the SIT-Verbal and the scientific imagination LP are also proposed.