||Energy always plays a vital role in the history of human economical and geopolitical development. In the EU, energy has become an imperative aspect of the development of the various domestic economies, an essential part of the people’s day to day livelihood, the fuel that drives the military, as well as the lifeline of modern industry. In Russia, not only does energy provide the necessary key to the development of its domestic economy, it is also its main source of foreign exchange revenues, and it provides the source of power for its financial and social development. Furthermore, energy has a far reaching impact on Russia’s domestic and foreign policies. |
This thesis explores the EU’s reaction in face of international oil and gas shortages, structural changes to the energy market, geopolitics, geoeconomics, climate change, the various challenges stemming from an overreliance on Russian oil and gas imports, the establishment of the EU and Member States internal and external policy objectives, as well as the strategies, measures taken, and possible solutions to becoming energy independent. This thesis will furthermore address the EU’s development of countermeasures to diminish its excessive energy dependence on Russia. This is also an analysis of the counter-measures and policies taken by Russia in response to EU’s attempts to become less dependent on Russia’s energy.