博碩士論文 etd-1220112-142413 詳細資訊


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姓名 張晏瑋 (Yen-Wei Chang) 電子郵件信箱 bard8088@msn.com
畢業系所 海洋生物研究所(Marine Biology)
畢業學位 博士(Ph.D.) 畢業時期 101學年第1學期
論文名稱(中) 台灣及離島後鰓類之生物多樣性研究
論文名稱(英) Study on the biodiversity of opisthobranchs in Taiwan and adjacent islands
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    摘要(中) 在台灣的經濟海域共紀錄到7目56科161屬782種海蛞蝓 (後鰓類軟體動物)。其中459種 (58.7 %)為有效種,323種 (41.3 %)為可能新種,估計在西太平洋區域的台灣經濟海域約有1000種。因大多數的潛水調查皆在白天進行,海蛞蝓物種的晝夜變化可能被忽略掉,為了瞭解在白天的潛水調查是否能精確估計該類群物種的多樣性,本研究在綠島石朗漁業保護區進行了為期一年 (從2009年12月到2010年11月)的逐月晝夜調查,調查結果顯示Phyllidiella pustulosa (突丘葉海蛞蝓)是白天最常見的物種,Tritonia sp. 1 (崔坦屬可能新種)為夜間豐度最高的物種。群聚分析的結果顯示,晝夜的物種組成差異相當大。在野外調查,發現到葉海蛞蝓科內物種的鑑定相當困難,因此本研究利用骨針 (spicule)形態以及基因序列 (COI和16S 基因)來作海蛞蝓科內種的鑑定。結果顯示,骨針的形態僅能將葉海蛞蝓科內Phyllidiella屬與其他屬分開,無法鑑別到種的層級。大多數的屬利用16S和COI基因都能鑑別到種,僅有Phyllidiella 屬內的物種仍然呈現混亂的狀態,單一種類內並未形成單系群。另外,本研究描述了三種來自澳洲或台灣裸鰓目多角科 (Polyceridae)的Tambja屬,其中兩種來自澳洲,分別是Tambja dracomus sp. nov. (鼠龍多角海蛞蝓) 分布在澳洲東南部以及紐西蘭北部冷溫帶沿岸海域;Tambja caeruleocirrus sp. nov. (天空藍髮絲多角海蛞蝓) 分布在澳洲東部以及東南太平洋沿岸海域;Tambja pulcherrima sp. nov. (豔麗多角海蛞蝓) 分布較廣,從日本到紐西蘭的熱帶、亞熱帶以及暖溫帶的西太平洋沿岸海域。
    摘要(英) A total of 782 sea slug species (opisthobranch molluscs) within 161 genera, 56 families, and 7 orders are authentically recorded from Taiwan’s Exclusive Economic Zone. Among these species, 459 species (58.7 %) are identified to species level and the other 323 species (41.3 %) are undescribed species. In terms of the whole Opisthobranchia fauna of the tropical western Pacific Ocean, approximately 1000 species are expected from Taiwan’s EEZ. As most of the previous surveys on within-area species diversity were carried out in daytime, diel variation (i.e., day and night) in the species composition of sea slugs has been neglected. In order to assess whether such estimations for community diversity based only on daytime surveys are accurate, I undertook replicated diel surveys for 12 consecutive months (from December 2009 to November 2010) at Shilang Marine Reserve, Green Island (Lyudao), Taiwan. Phyllidiella pustulosa was observed most often during the daytime surveys, while Tritonia sp. 1 (an undescribed species) was the most abundant species at night. The results showed the species composition was clear different. During the field surveys, I found the difficult to identify the phyllidiid nudibranchs. Hence, I search for the additional taxonomic characters for phyllidiid nudibranchs base on integumentary spicules and gene sequences (COI and 16S genes). The results showed the spicules characters might provide the character to distinguish the Phyllidiella from other phyllidiid genera, but they were not informative at the species level. The results on molecular phylogeny showed that taxonomic status (both at the species and generic levels) of most phyllidiid genera, except Phyllidiella, received strong supports from COI gene and 16S gene. In contrast, each Phyllidiella species did not form a clade (suggesting the possibility of over estimating the species number in this genus). Finally, I described and illustrated three distinctive new species of Tambja (Nudibranchia: Polyceridae) from Taiwan and Australia. Among these three species, two of them were collected from Australia the other was collected from Taiwan. Tambja dracomus sp. nov. which is only distribution in cool temperate coastal waters in southeastern Australia and northern New Zealand; T. caeruleocirrus sp. nov. which is distributed in warm temperate coastal waters in eastern Australia, southeast Pacific Ocean. Tambja pulcherrima sp. nov. is widely distributed throughout the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate waters in western Pacific Ocean from Japan to northern New Zealand.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 後鰓類
  • 裸鰓類
  • 台灣經濟海域
  • 葉海蛞蝓科
  • 骨針
  • 分子親緣關係
  • 新種描述
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • opisthobranchs
  • nudibranchs
  • Taiwan’s EEZ
  • Phyllidiidae
  • spicules
  • molecular phylogeny
  • new species description
  • 論文目次 Chapte 1 General introduction…………….......................1
    Chapte 2 Catalogue of sea slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) from Taiwan’s exclusive economic zone
    2.1 Abstract……………………………………..13
    2.2 Introduction…………………………………15
    2.3 Material and methods……………………..21
    2.4 Results………………………………………23
    2.5 Discussion…………………………………..25
    2.6 References………………………………….31
    Chapte 3 Diel variation affects estimates of biodiversity and abundance of nudibranch faunas
    3.1 Abstract……………………………………..64
    3.2 Introduction…………………………………66
    3.3 Material and methods……………………..70 3.4 Results………………………………………74
    3.5 Discussion…………………………………..78
    3.6 References………………………………….81
    Chapte 4 Can the morphology of the integumentary spicules be used to distinguish genera and species of phyllidiid nudibranchs (Porostomata: Phyllidiidae)?
    4.1 Abstract……………………………………..98
    4.2 Introduction………………………………..100
    4.2.1 Nomenclature of spicules……………..103
    4.3 Material and methods…………………....105
    4.4 Results…………………………………….107
    4.5 Discussion…………………………………111
    4.6 References………………………………..115
    Chapte 5 Molecular phylogeny phyllidiid nudibranchs (Porostomata: Phyllidiidae) based on the COI and 16S genes
    5.1 Abstract……………………………………127
    5.2 Introduction………………………………..128
    5.3 Material and methods……………………130
    5.4 Results…………………………………….132
    5.5 Discussion…………………………………135
    5.6 References………………………………..137
    Chapte 6 Three new species of Tambja (Nudibranchia: Polyceridae) from the western Pacific Ocean
    6.1 Abstract…………………………………....152
    6.2 Introduction………………………………..154
    6.3 Material and methods…………………....157
    6.4 Results…………………………………….158
    6.5 References………………………………..183
    Appendix 1…………………………………….196
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