博碩士論文 etd-0907110-160002 詳細資訊


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姓名 張裕彰(Yu-chang Chang) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 海洋地質及化學研究所(Marine Geology and chemistry)
畢業學位 碩士(Master) 畢業時期 98學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 台灣島上及週遭水域之CH4分佈        
論文名稱(英) The CH4 distribution in natural waters in and around Taiwan
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    摘要(中) 甲烷(CH4)不僅是大氣中重要的微量氣體,也是壽命較長的溫室氣體。有研究指出,自然界CH4的釋放一半以上是來自水體。而目前台灣地區水體CH4釋放量研究,大多著重在稻田、溼地與沼澤,對於河、湖泊水庫等水體的研究仍較少,且對於台灣周遭海域CH4釋放量研究也不多。所以,本文將探討台灣島上及周遭水域CH4的分佈與釋放量。
    南海表水平均CH4濃度為5.10±3.61 nM (n=103),西菲律賓海表水平均濃度較低,為3.44±3.89 nM (n=56),台灣海峽北部與台灣海峽南部表水平均濃度,則分別為4.72±3.19 nM (n=64)與4.01±3.19 nM (n=51),大致是介於南海與西菲律賓海之間。CH4海氣平均通量南海為0.38±0.99 μmol/m2/h (n=103),西菲律賓海為0.14±0.57 μmol/m2/h (n=56),台灣海峽北部與南部則分別是0.37±0.55 μmol/m2/h (n=64)與0.10±0.53 μmol/m2/h (n=51)。將南海的CH4通量以Global warming potential (GWP)換算成等單位的CO2通量,發現其所造成的溫室效應與南海釋放的CO2接近。
    台灣地區河川CH4濃度在1.45 ~ 88819 nM之間,平均為3221 nM,通量介於-0.04 ~ 3036 μmol/m2/h之間,平均為104 μmol/m2/h (n=179);大陸地區水體(香港近岸地區、珠江以及長江)CH4濃度在2.65 ~ 37665 nM之間,平均為2518 nM,CH4通量介於0.0037 ~ 10370 μmol/m2/h (n=120),平均通量為265 μmol/m2/h較台灣河川CH4通量高。
    亞洲地區其他國家陸地水域的CH4濃度及通量,泰國(4.96 ~ 95659 nM,平均8240 nM,n=27)以及印尼表水CH4濃度(14.7 ~ 159810 nM,平均為7639 nM,n=50)高於台灣河川,馬來西亞(106 ~ 8438 nM,平均為 2841 nM,n=5)與菲律賓表水CH4濃度(17.6 ~ 13147 nM,平均為1939 nM,n=15)低於台灣河川;CH4釋放量只有印尼(1.3 ~ 16680 μmol/m2/h,平均845 μmol/m2/h,n=50)、馬來西亞(11 ~ 857 μmol/m2/h,平均292 μmol/m2/h,n=5)以及菲律賓(0.18 ~ 1288 μmol/m2/h,平均181 μmol/m2/h,n=15)高於台灣,泰國CH4釋放量(0.034 ~ 1089 μmol/m2/h,平均100 μmol/m2/h,n=25)則與台灣差不多。
    將南海與西菲律賓海CH4通量,以各海域面積計算得到年釋放量,與台灣地區農田(27040 t/yr)以及畜牧業CH4釋放量(91199 t/yr)比較。南海CH4年釋放量(1.9x10^5 t/yr)約為台灣地區農田CH4釋放量的7倍,畜牧業排放量的兩倍;西菲律賓海CH4年釋放量(9.8x10^4 t/yr)為台灣地區農田CH4釋放量的3.6倍,約與畜牧業排放量相近。
    摘要(英) Methane (CH4) is not only important but also a long-lived greenhouse gas. Scientists estimated that more than half of CH4 is released from the water column. Studies of methane from water column are almost focused on rice fields, wetlands and swamps in Taiwan. There are only limited studies of methane about rivers, lakes and coasts. So this study investigated CH4 distribution in natural waters on and around Taiwan. 
    The average surface methane concentration in the South China Sea (SCS) is about 5.10±3.61 nM (n=103). The average surface methane concentration in the West Philippines Sea (WPS) is about 3.44±3.89 nM (n=56), lower than in the SCS. The average surface concentration in the Northern and Southern Taiwan Strait are, respectively, 4.72±3.19 nM (n=64) and 4.01±3.19 nM (n=51), and are between the average concentrations in the SCS and the WPS. The sea-to-air fluxes of methane in the SCS and the WPS are 0.38±0.99 μmol/m2/h (n=103) and μmol/m2/h (n=56), respectively. The sea-to-air fluxes of methane in the Northern and Southern Taiwan Strait are, respectively, 0.37±0.55 μmol/m2/h (n=64) and 0.10±0.53 μmol/m2/h (n=51). Although the sea-to-air fluxes for methane is much lower than the flux for carbon dioxide, methane emission in the SCS contributes nearly the same greenhouse effect as carbon dioxide does.
    In Taiwan, the average surface methane concentration in rivers is about 3221±12386 nM, and the emission is about 104±337 (μmol/m2/h) (n=179). The average surface methane concentration and flux are, respectively, 2164±5432 nM and 265±1289 μmol/m2/h (n=120) in the water column in China, including the coasts of Hong Kong , Pearl River and Yangtze River. The average surface methane concentration and flux in the natural water are higher than in Taiwan.
    In Asia, the average surface methane concentrations of the natural waters are, respectively, 8240±22753 nM (n=27) and 7639±24554 nM (n=50) in Thailand and Indonesia, twice the concentration in Taiwan. The average surface methane concentrations of the natural waters are, respectively, 2841±3358 nM (n=5) and 1939±3694 nM (n=15) in Malaysia and the Philippines, lower than in Taiwan. The emissions of methane in the natural waters are, respectively, 845±2622 μmol/m2/h (n=50), 292±341 μmol/m2/h (n=5) and 181±356 μmol/m2/h (n=15) in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, also much higher than in Taiwan. The flux of methane in natural waters in Thailand (100±265 μmol/m2/h, n=25) is as the same as in Taiwan.
    關鍵字(中)
  • CH4
  • 溫室氣體
  • 通量
  • 台灣海峽
  • 南海
  • 西菲律賓海
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • methane
  • West Philippine Sea
  • greenhouse gas
  • flux
  • South China Sea
  • Taiwan Strait
  • 論文目次 致謝----------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
    中文摘要--------------------------------------------------------------------------III
    英文摘要--------------------------------------------------------------------------V
    目錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------VII
    圖目錄-----------------------------------------------------------------------------X
    表目錄---------------------------------------------------------------------------XV
    第一章、緒論-----------------------------------------------------------------------1
    第二章、研究區域與方法--------------------------------------------------------5
    2.1、研究區域-------------------------------------------------------------------5
    2.2、研究方法-----------------------------------------------------------------18
    第三章、結果與討論-海水部份---------------------------------------------21
    3.1、南海之CH4分佈------------------------------------------------------21
    3.1.1 南海航次OR III-896(2003/8)-- -------------------------------23
    3.1.2南海航次OR I-695(2003/9)-------------------------------------25
    3.1.3 南海航次OR III-983(2004/7)----------------------------------27
    3.1.4 南海航次OR III-1081(2005/7)--------------------------------31
    3.1.5 南海航次OR I-802(2006/7)------------------------------------33
    3.1.6南海航次OR I-837(2007/7)-------------------------------------36
    3.1.7南海航次比較-----------------------------------------------------37
    3.2、西菲律賓海之CH4分佈---------------------------------------------40
    3.2.1 西菲律賓海航次OR I-725(2004/7)---------------------------41
    3.2.2 西菲律賓海航次OR III-1126(2006/1)-----------------------45
    3.2.3 西菲律賓海航次OR III-1149(2006/5)-----------------------49
    3.2.4、西菲律賓海航次比較-------------------------------------------52
    3.3、台灣海峽之CH4分佈-------------------------------------------------54
    3.3.1台灣海峽北部航次-----------------------------------------------55
    3.3.2台灣海峽南部航次-----------------------------------------------69
    3.3.3 台灣海峽南北航次之CH4比較-------------------------------82
    3.4、小結---------------------------------------------------------------------85
    第四章、結果與討論-淡水部份---------------------------------------------87
    4.1、台灣地區河川、湖泊及水庫的CH4分佈及釋放量---------------87
    4.2、金門近岸與第三核能發電廠的CH4分佈-------------------------98
    4.3、台灣地區SGD的CH4分佈----------------------------------------102
    4.4、大陸地區的CH4分佈及釋放量-----------------------------------106
    4.5、亞洲地區的CH4分佈及釋放量------------------------------------111
    4.6、台灣地區各CH4來源年釋放量比較-----------------------------117
    結論------------------------------------------------------------------------------118
    參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------------------120
    附錄A、相關化學參數量測方法--------------------------------------------131
    附錄B、甲烷Bunsen 溶解常數β 值計算方程式------------------------133
    附圖1、ORIII-896CH4剖面圖------------------------------------------------134
    附圖2、ORI-695CH4剖面圖--------------------------------------------------135
    附圖3、ORIII-983CH4剖面圖------------------------------------------------136
    附圖4、ORIII-1081CH4剖面圖----------------------------------------------138
    附圖5、ORI-802CH4剖面圖--------------------------------------------------140
    附圖6、ORI-837CH4剖面圖--------------------------------------------------141
    附圖7、ORI-725CH4剖面圖--------------------------------------------------142
    附圖8、ORIII-1126CH4剖面圖----------------------------------------------143
    附圖9、ORIII-1149CH4剖面圖----------------------------------------------144
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    口試委員
  • 楊盛行 - 召集委員
  • 楊穎堅 - 委員
  • 王樹倫 - 委員
  • 羅建育 - 委員
  • 陳鎮東 - 指導教授
  • 口試日期 2010-07-16 繳交日期 2010-09-07

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