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姓名 劉致中(Chih-Chung Liu) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 資訊管理學系研究所(Information Management)
畢業學位 博士(Ph.D.) 畢業時期 98學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 內在動機與外在動機對個人在虛擬社群中知識分享行為的影響   
論文名稱(英) Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation on Individuals Knowledge-Sharing Behavior in Virtual Communities
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    摘要(中)   由於網際網路與 Web 2.0 的快速發展,使得線上虛擬社群以驚人的速度成長。虛擬社群是否得以存活與成長,其中一項重要的因素為該社群的會員是否能持續提供有價值的內容與知識,雖然絕大多數的虛擬社群並未提供實質的金錢獎勵做為誘因,來促使會員貢獻所知,然而卻有越來越多的網際網路使用者自願性的參與社群活動與回答其他會員所提出的問題,使得虛擬社群成為重要的知識分享平台。本論文的目的即在於了解促使虛擬社群會員分享知識的動機、在不同型態的虛擬社群中,會員分享知識的動機是否有所不同、及實質的金錢獎勵是否能讓會員更願意在社群中分享知識。本研究架構包含兩種動機(內在、外在)及兩類虛擬社群(專業導向、關係導向),資料收集自兩個國外的知名網站 ITToolBox 與 LinkedIn,並在此二社群上進行調查與實地實驗。研究發現,內在動機是專業導向類(common identity based)虛擬社群會員分享知識的主要動機,關係導向類(common bond based)虛擬社群的會員主要是受到外在動機的驅使,實質的金錢獎勵可增加會員貢獻知識的數量,但對於知識品質的提升沒有顯著的幫助,另外,本研究也支持動機擠壓效應的存在,外在的金錢獎勵可提升會員的分享知識的外在動機,但於此同時,會員的內在動機也隨之下降。
    摘要(英)   The rapid growth of network access and the development of Web 2.0 have resulted in the popularity of virtual communities (VCs), such as Wikipedia, Facebook, and LinkedIn. Although these online communities provide no monetary incentive for sharing knowledge, as most businesses will do, they still become a popular platform for knowledge sharing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the motivation for people to contribute in virtual communities, whether their motivations differ in different types of virtual communities, and whether their behavior and motivations will be affected by monetary reward. Social exchange theory and self determination theory were adopted to explore the relationships between behavior and motivations of virtual community members. Motivation crowding theory was used to examine the effect of monetary reward on knowledge sharing. The research framework includes two types of motivators (intrinsic and extrinsic), two different virtual community types (common identity vs. common bond), and one treatment (monetary reward). An online survey and an experiment with monetary incentive were conducted on two virtual communities: ITToolbox and LinkedIn. The results showed that there were significant moderating effects between these two types of virtual communities. A strong positive relationship was found between intrinsic motivation and knowledge sharing for the professional community (common identity). In contrast, the relationship between extrinsic motivation and knowledge sharing was stronger in the social networking community (common bond). The results also confirmed the existence of the crowding effect that the intrinsic motivation was significantly declined when an extrinsic monetary reward was provided.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 內在動機
  • 知識分享
  • 虛擬社群
  • 動機擠壓效應
  • 外在動機
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • Motivation Crowding Effect
  • Virtual Community
  • Knowledge Sharing
  • Intrinsic Motivation
  • Extrinsic Motivation
  • 論文目次 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1
    1.1 Background of the Problem 1
    1.2 Research Motivations 3
    1.3 Research Questions 5
    1.4 Research Process 6
    1.5 Contribution 9
    1.6 Organization of the Dissertation 11
    CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 12
    2.1 Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Communities 12
    2.2 Motivation and Human Needs 16
    2.2.1 Intrinsic Motivators and Self-Determination Theory 25
    2.2.2 Extrinsic Motivators and Social Exchange Theory 26
    2.3 Variations of Motivation Effect on Knowledge Sharing 27
    2.4 Interaction between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations 34
    CHAPTER 3. STUDY 1: EFFECTS OF MOTIVATIONS AND COMMUNITY TYPES 37
    3.1 Model and Hypotheses Development for Study 1 37
    3.1.1 Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Intention in Virtual Communities 37
    3.1.2 Intrinsic Motivation and Knowledge Sharing Intention 38
    3.1.3 Extrinsic Motivation and Knowledge Sharing Intention 42
    3.1.4 Moderating Effect of Virtual Community Type 46
    3.2 Method of Study 1 52
    3.2.1 Measurement Development 52
    3.2.2 Survey Administration 56
    3.2.3 Statistical Technique 63
    3.3 Data Analysis and Results of Study 1 64
    3.3.1 Measurement Model 65
    3.3.2 Hypothesis Tests 69
    3.4 Discussion for Study 1 77
    CHAPTER 4. STUDY 2: EFFECTS OF MONETARY INCENTIVES 82
    4.1 Model and Hypotheses Development for Study 2 82
    4.2 Methodology of Study 2 85
    4.2.1 Field Experiment 85
    4.2.2 Questionnaire Development and Data Collection 86
    4.2.3 Statistical Technique 89
    4.3 Data Analysis and Results of Study 2 89
    4.3.1 Measurement Reliability 90
    4.3.2 Results 90
    4.4 Discussion for Study 2 91
    CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSION 95
    5.1 Implications for Research 95
    5.2 Implications for Practice 97
    5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research 100
    REFERENCES 102
    Appendix A Questionnaire 120
    Appendix B. Letters for Experiment 130
    B.1 Invitation Letter for Experiment 130
    B.2 Notification Letter for Game Rule of Incentive Program 131
    B.3 A Sample of the Reminding Letters for Treatment 132
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    口試委員
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