博碩士論文 etd-0730113-120416 詳細資訊


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姓名 盧榮泰(Jung-Tai Lu) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 海洋科學系研究所(Department of Oceanography)
畢業學位 碩士(Master) 畢業時期 102學年第1學期
論文名稱(中) 飽和脂肪烴類於濁水溪流域及臺灣海峽沉積物中之分布與特徵
論文名稱(英) Distributions and Characteristics of Saturated Aliphatic Alkanes in Zhuoshui River and Taiwan Strait Sediments
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    摘要(中) 生物指標(biomarkers)泛指少數能夠反映環境更迭的示蹤性生源組分,而被覆於陸源植物外皮組織的蠟脂分泌物-長碳鏈正烷烴(n-C25~n-C34)亦屬之,因其各碳數(鏈長)化合物間的豐度比值表現,係伴隨植物種屬與外在環境因子的波動(如濕度與溫度)而有所差異,故可作為評估區域狀態變化的代用指標。
    臺灣位處歐亞大陸板塊交接帶,在頻繁的地質作用之下,孕育了島嶼型的高山河川。然而,極端自然事件的發生(如:地震、暴雨、颱風等),加速了集水區內的地殼變動、岩層風化與河道侵蝕等改變地形地貌的作用,也使得陸源有機物質的傳輸與分佈特徵,在如此水動力機制之下,更顯複雜。本研究透過分析顆粒物質中蠟脂組分之烷烴物質,以調查臺灣中部濁水溪流域與臺灣海峽沉積物中陸源有機質之空間分佈型態的差異。
    分析結果顯示,流域內土壤樣品的長碳鏈烷烴(n-C26~n-C35)幾乎保有相對濃度高值,呈現典型的陸源植物訊號,尤以n-C31與n-C29為優勢化合物。而沉積物與懸浮顆粒所含的正烷烴濃度豐值,於濁水溪主流內則多富集在短、中碳鏈(n-C16~n-C25)的區段,顯示可能受到單細胞生物(如矽藻)的影響,而使得烷烴碳數型態的變化趨勢於時空分布上略有不同。另一方面,造成烷烴數值產生較大變異的情形,還發生在溪水流經中游區的高侵蝕河段與西部麓山帶岩層時,因埋藏在岩塊中的岩石源烷烴,常伴隨著大量岩屑被挾帶沖入河川中,進而主導顆粒物質內長碳鏈烷烴的分布型式。經估算可概率得知,濁水溪下游區懸浮顆粒所攜載的n-C26-35,約有28-58%之比例係來自岩石源烷烴所貢獻。若以年輸出量表示,則每年大約有1.9-3.8 kt yr-1(0.35-0.69 Mt TOC-1 yr-1)的岩石源n-C26-35注入臺灣海峽(佔輸出的TOC比值多少?)。
    臺灣海峽表層沉積物的烷烴分析資料,延續了河川內的岩石源烷烴之特徵型態,多數區域顯示出低陸源植物的訊號。在此認為,臺灣河川所輸出的岩屑物質與東海南緣所輸入的第四紀(Quaternary Period)冰期殘餘顆粒,為台灣海峽沉積物中烷烴主要的貢獻來源。
    綜觀烷烴的數值分布結果,可推估由源(濁水溪流域)到匯(臺灣海峽)沉積顆粒所吸附之有機物質,有一定比例是由過去埋藏在岩層中的岩石源"老碳"所主導,亦表明臺灣西部高輸砂量的山溪型河川,在陸源有機碳傳輸的行為模式上呈現一致的現象,而與臺灣海峽正烷類有機化合物的空間分布模式無關,顯示台灣西部河川所供應的細顆粒沉積物並未廣泛的分佈在臺灣海峽。
    摘要(英) Vegetation changes caused by varied climatic conditions may leave fingerprint in sediments like lipids so-called molecular fossils or biomarkers. The concentration of n-alkanes and derived biological indicators (biomarkers) have been well-used on reconstructing paleoenvironment and paleoclimate variations, whereas degree of biodegradation/thermodegradation and dilutive influence from lithic organic compounds are still not constrained very well yet. In this study, we used biomarkers not only seeking for tracing sediment sources but also for reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes of source regions. For getting better understanding of the background knowledge of organic lipids and for evaluating the possibility of using biomarkers as indicators on reconstructing paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes at the region of central part of Taiwan, riverine sediments, soils and rocks are recovered from the catchment of Zhuoshui River for analyzing total organic carbon and aliphatic lipids.
    In soil samples, the carbon distribution pattern of n-alkanes is dominated by n-C31 and n-C29, which are typical higher plants derived signals. However, the rock samples contain only minor organic matters and no predominant carbon species are found. Our results also have shown that hydrocarbon compounds in riverine sediments and suspended particles are mainly composted of short- and medium-carbon chain alkanes (n-C16-25), which might indicate to the possible contributions from unicellular organisms (such as diatoms). 
    Concentrations of higher plant derived n-alkanes of surface sediments retrieved from the Taiwan Strait are low. This result indicates that there might be other sources of hydrocarbons besides the terrestrial plants and may be diluted by short-chain alkanes coming from marine organisms and lithic hydrocarbons. Therefore, we conclude that there are about 1.9-3.8 kt yr-1 (0.35-0.69 Mt TOC-1 yr-1) of rock-sourced hydrocarbons are discharged into the Taiwan Strait by Zhuoshui River.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 正烷類
  • 濁水溪
  • 臺灣海峽
  • 山溪型河川
  • 生物指標
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • Small Mountainous River
  • Zhuoshui River
  • Taiwan Strait
  • Biomarkers
  • n-Alkanes
  • 論文目次 致謝 i
    中文摘要 ii
    英文摘要 iv
    目錄 vi
    圖目錄 ix
    表目錄 xi
    一、緒論 1
    1.1 前言 1
    1.2 研究區域 5
    1.2.1 濁水溪 5
    1.2.2 濁水溪流域區域地質背景 5
    1.2.3 濁水溪流域氣候與水文 8
    1.2.4 臺灣海峽區域背景 9
    1.3 生物指標 13
    1.4 植物蠟(Plant wax) 13
    1.4.1 正烷烴(n-alkane) 16
    1.5 正烷烴指標量化研究 19
    1.6 臺灣地質環境正烷烴之研究 22
    1.7 研究目的 23
    二、研究材料與方法 25
    2.1 樣品種類 25
    2.2 研究區域內的採樣站位 25
    2.3 實驗藥品 34
    2.4 前處理工作 35
    2.4.1 樣品前處理 35
    2.4.2 實驗器材前處理 35
    2.5 實驗步驟 36
    2.5.1 總元素碳(TC)與總有機元素碳(TOC) 36
    2.5.2 正烷烴(脂類) 37
    2.6 空白與重覆試驗 39
    2.6.1 空白試驗 39
    2.6.2 重覆試驗 39
    三、結果 42
    3.1 元素碳分析結果 42
    3.1.1 濁水溪流域元素碳分析結果 42
    3.1.1(a) 岩塊 42
    3.1.1(b) 河階發育土壤 42
    3.1.1(c) 濁水溪流域土壤 43
    3.1.1(d) 濁水溪流域沉積物 44
    3.1.1(e)懸浮顆粒 44
    3.1.2 濁水溪河口沉積物元素碳分析結果 48
    3.1.3 東海南緣與臺灣海峽沉積物分析結果 49
    3.2 烷烴濃度分析結果 50
    3.2.1 濁水溪流域樣品 50
    3.2.1(a) 河階發育土壤 50
    3.2.1(b) 濁水溪流域土壤 50
    3.2.1(c) 濁水溪流域沉積物與懸浮顆粒 51
    3.2.2 濁水溪河口沉積物 51
    3.2.3 臺灣海峽沉積物 52
    3.3 烷烴參數分析結果 62
    3.3.1 濁水溪流域樣品 62
    3.3.1(a) 乾季(2011年1月) 62
    3.3.1(b) 濕季(2011年10月) 63
    3.3.2 濁水溪河口沉積物 64
    3.3.3 臺灣海峽海洋沉積物 70
    四、討論 73
    4.1 烷烴參數指示意義的界定 73
    4.1.1 n-C26-35/n-C16-35與CPI26-35 73
    4.1.2 Average Carbon Chain Length (ACL) 75
    4.2 濁水溪流域長鏈烷烴於時間與空間上的分布結果 75
    4.2.1 濁水溪流域土壤 75
    4.2.2 濁水溪流域沉積物與懸浮顆粒 79
    4.2.3 濁水溪河口沉積物 85
    4.3臺灣海峽長鏈烷烴於空間上的分布結果 85
    4.4 臺灣海峽沉積物偶數碳優勢烷烴之分布與探討 89
    4.4.1 長鏈烷烴的偶數碳分布優勢 93
    4.4.2 中鏈烷烴的偶數碳分布優勢 94
    4.4.3 短鏈烷烴的偶數碳分布優勢 101
    五、結論 105
    參考文獻 107
    附錄一、正烷烴標準品檢量線與迴歸公式 122
    附錄二、重覆試驗結果列表 123
    附錄三、樣品烷烴濃度列表 128
    附錄四、樣品烷烴萃取回收率、參數與元素碳濃度列表 144
    附錄五、臺灣海峽沉積物烷烴參數空間分布圖(測站未經過濾) 154
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