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Redefining Leadership with courage: Courageous leadership and its possible outcomes
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courageous actions, perceptions, Leadership, courage
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In human history, the concept of Courage has received numerous research and debates. In the past, many authors and researchers had pointed out that courage may affect people’s behaviors and other people’s perceptions upon them. To date, it’s still viewed as a vital factor in influencing peoples behaviors and thoughts. However, management studies lacked sufficient research regarding the definition of courage as well as its practical applications in the past. Therefore, this research aims for finding implications pertaining to courage through ample literature review as well as quantitative analyses.
By going through survey research, this study analyzed data by statistic software after collecting self-report data from an online webpage. The findings of this research showed that leaders displaying courageous actions is positively related to the emergence of subordinates’ trust to the leader and also their eventual engagement to work as well. Thus, courage is proved to be one of the most influential concepts in management studies.
目次 Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Chinese abstract・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ iii
1. Introduction・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.1 1.1 Research Background・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ P.1 1.2 Research Purpose・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.4
2. Literature Review・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.6 2.1 Brief history of Leadership・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.6 2.2 Importance of Courageous leadership・・・・・・・・・・ P.13 2.3 Brief history of Courage・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.15 2.4 Brave & Courage・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ P.18 2.5 Personal Workplace Courage・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.20 2.6 Courage to Interpersonal Trust・・・・・・・・・・・・・ P.24 2.7 Trust as a sequence・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.25 2.8 Engagement as an outcome・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.27 2.9 Hypotheses and Research framework・・・・・・・・・・・P.30
3.1 Sampling method and survey・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.32
3.2.1 Personal Courage Scale (PCS) ・・・・・・・・・・・P.33
3.2.2 Interpersonal Trust Measures・・・・・・・・・・・・P.36
3.2.3 Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-9・・・・・・・・・・P.38
4. Results・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ P.40 4.1 Samples, Descriptive Statistics and Reliability・・・・・・・・P.40 4.2.1 Analyses of results・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.42 4.2.2 Dimensions of Courage・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.46 4.3 Collinearity・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.49
4.4 Covariates・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ P.50
5. Discussion・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.57 5.1 Limitations & Future Suggestions・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.57 5.2 Practical Suggestions・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.61
6. Conclusion・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ P.62
References・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ P.63 Appendix・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.71 Survey questions・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ P.79
1. 2. 3.
1. 2. 3.
Table of figures
Workplace Courage, Schilpzand (2008) ・・・・・・・・・・ P. 35 McAllister’s Interpersonal Trust (1995)・・・・・・・・・・・P.72 Utrecht Work Engagement-9, Chen (2016) ・・・・・・・・・P.74
Table of tables
Table 4.1 Work experience (N=503) ・・・・・・・・・・・・P.41 Table 4.2 Education (N=503) ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ P.41 Table4.3Age(N=503) ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・P.41
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