||Recently, organization downsizing has become the major means used by corporations to seek survival or better growth. Organization downsizing has some purposes: to reduce the cost of personal, to get better efficiency, to rearrange the deployment of human resource after M&A. Besides those economic purposes, some scholar think corporations do organization downsizing to get legitimacy. Generally speaking, the purpose of organization downsizing is to get better efficiency or the legitimacy. But lots of researches indicate lots of organization downsizing can not achieve expected goals. Although some corporations can achieve the goal of organization downsizing, many corporations can’t achieve expected goals, and there are also some corporations do a lot of organization downsizing but their situations go from bed to worse. Among the researches of why organization downsizing can’t achieve expected goals, many researches indicate that the application of organization downsizing will make huge negative impact to survivors. Some scholars call that impact survivor syndrome. Besides, some scholars investigate the reason of the failure of organization downsizing from the point of informal social network. Because the theory of social capital includes trust, organization involvement, social network and so on, we can more understand the reason of the failure of organization downsizing from the point of social capital. So the purpose of this research is to use the theory of social capital to investigate the impact of organization downsizing and provide some advices to corporations, so that they can do better about organization downsizing.|
This research uses case study to understand the reason and the process of organization downsizing, and investigates the negative impact of organization downsizing. Survivor syndrome and social capital play important roles in the analysis of the failure of organization downsizing.
This research finds that organization downsizing will do huge damage to social capital. If corporation don’t understand the importance and benefit of social network, then the application of organization downsizing will hurt social network and corporations can’t achieve expected goals. Besides, in the analysis of case study this research finds that organization downsizing also hurt trust, involvement, incentives to cooperation and so on, these issues are part of survivor syndrome, but we also can use social capital to explain.
1. 天下雜誌編輯部，2006 年5 月。「1000 大製造業行業排名」、「500 大服務業行業排名」、「100 大金融業排名」，天下雜誌1000 大特刊。
6. 聯合知識庫網站 http://udndata.com
Adler, P. S. & Kwon, S. W. 2002. Social capital: prospects for a new concept. The Academy of Management Review, 27(1): 17-40.
Burt, R. 1992. Structural holes: The social structure of competition. C. H. U. Press.
Burt, R. S. 1997. The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 339-365.
Burt, R. S. 2004. Structural holes and good ideas. American Journal of Sociology , 41(2): 349-399.
Bhattacharyya, S. & Chatterjee, L. 2005. Organizational downsizing: From concepts to practices. The Journal for Decision Makers, 30(3): 65-78.
Cameron, K. S. & Freeman, S. J. 1993. A convergence and reorganizational downsizing. Organization Science, 14(1): 10-29.
Cameron, K. S. 1994. Strategies for succesful organizational downsizing. Human Resource Management, 133(2): 189-211.
Casico, W. F. 1993. Downsizing : What do we know ? What have we learned? Academy of Management Exexutive, 17(1): 95-106.
Cascio, W. F. 2002. Strategies for responsible restructuring. Academy of Management Executive, 16(3): 80-91.
Coleman, J. 1988. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94: 95-120.
Dess, G. G. & Shaw, J. D. 2001. Voluntary turnover, social capital, and organizational performance. Academy of Management Review, 26: 446–456.
Dougherty, D. & Bowman, E. H. 1995. The Effects of organizational downsizing on product innovation. California Management Review, 37(4): 28-44.
Fischer, H. M. & Pollock, T. G. 2004. Effects of social capital and power on surviving transformational change: The case of initial public offerings. Academy of Management Journal, 47(4): 463-481.
Fisher, S. R. & White, M. A. 2000. Downsizing in a learning organization: Are there hidden costs？ Academy of Management Review, 25(1): 244-251.
Fisher, S. R. & White, M. A. 1997. Downsizing and organizational learning: A question of compatibility. Academy of Management Proceedings, 454-459.
Granovetter, M. 1973. The strength of weak tie. American Journal of Sociology, 78: 1360-1380.
de Vries, M. F. R. K. & Balazs, K. 1997. The downside of downsizing. Human Relations, 50(1): 11-50.
Krackhardt, D. 1992. The strength of strong ties: The importance of Philos in organization. In N. Nohria and R. G. Eccles (Eds), Networks and organizations: structure, form, and action. Boston (MA), Harvard Business School Press, 216-239.
Krackhardt, D. & Hanson, J. R. 1993. Informal networks: The company behind the chart. Harvard Business Review July-Aug: 104-111.
Leana, C. & van Buren III, H. J. 1998. Organizational social capital and employment practices. The Academy of Management Review . 27(1): 17-40.
McKinley, W., Sanchez, C. M., & Schick, A. G. 1995. Organizational downsizing: Constraining, cloning, learning. Academy of Management Executive, 9(3): 32-42.
Mishra, A. K. & Spreitzer, G. M. 1998. Explaining how survivors respond to downsizing: The roles of trust, empowerment, justice, and work redesign. Academy of Management Review, 23(3): 567-588.
Mishra, K. E., Spreitzer, G. M., & Mishra, A. K., 1998. Preserving employee morale during downsizing. Sloan Management Review: 83-95.
Portes, A. 1998. Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology, Annual Review of Sociology, 24: 1–24.
Shah, P. P. 2000. Network destruction: The structural implications of downsizing. Academy of Management Journal, 43(1): 101-112.
Shaw, J. D., Gupta, N. & Delery, J. E. 2005. Voluntary turnover and organizational performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48: 50–68.
Stoner, C. R. & Hartman, R. I. 1997. Organizational therapy: Building survivor health and competitiveness. Advanced Management Journal, 62(3): 25-31.
Nahapiet, J. & Ghoshal, S. 1998. Social capital, intellectual capital and the organizational advantage. The Academy of Management Review, 23(2): 242-266.
Tsia, W. & Ghoshal, S. 1998. Social capital and value creation: the role of intrafirm network. Academy of Management Journal, 41: 464-476.